Thursday, 25 February 2016

Bahava | Cassia fistula

Kingdom: Plantae
Bahava
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
Tribe: Cassieae
Subtribe: Cassiinae
Genus: Cassia

Common name: Indian laburnum

Description:- it is a small or medium-size tree with compound leaves and large,shining,dark
green leaflets."

Flowers bright yellow, in very large, hanging bunches. fruits 50-60 cm long, black or shining dark brown ,almost cylindric.
the tree is a conspicuous sight in flower as well as in fruit.

Nature :- it 
is a medium sized tree with compound leaves.
leaflets large and shining. flowers are bright yellow and borne in long hanging bunches.
pod is cylindrical and dark brown when ripe.

Distribution: Common in moist and evergreen forest. This tree is found throught india up to an altitude of about,500m .
Special characteristics o
: Beautiful golden yellow flowers in hanging bunch.
the tree is much favoured for planting in road-side avenue and in garden.
Uses:-the bark of this tree is known as "sumari" and is rich in tannins. the timber of the tree is

strong and tough and is suitable for house and bridge posts and agricultural implements.
medicinal uses of Cassia fistula: Seeds and fruit pulp used as mild laxative. tender leaves juice used in the treatment of scabies.
It's a very good avenue and garden tree.
position: Commonly found in the forest.

Aegles marmelos | bel | Images | classification


Common name : bel
Bel
Botanical name: aegle marmelos
Family :rutaceae
nature-a medium-size deciduuous tree bearing strong axillary thorn.

leaves with 3 or 5 leaflets.

flowers greenish-white, sweet-scented,about 2.5cm across, in small bunches.
fruits 8-20 cm diameter, globes, green, finally grevish:

this tree occurs in the submontane region and plains almost throught India.it is also
planted.

 uses:-the wood is suitable for making charcoal for producer gas plants.

the gummy substance, in which the seeds remain embedded, is used as an adhesive,

and in varnishes and cementing mixtures.the rind of unripe fruit yields a yellow

dye.
Habit

It is a tree with strong axillary thorns and trifoliat leaves. fruits are round in shape , woody with orang-coloured sweet aromatic pulp.


Distribution

Throughout india on plains and perfers dry climate.
characteristic of Aegle marmelos
Trioliat leaves used for worshipping'lord shiva'. fruits are edible.


Medicnal uses of Aegle marmelos

Leaves and fruits are used in medicine. fruits cotain mucilage and pectin; and are used in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. its pulp gives cooling effect, hence used for preparing "sharbat". unripe fruits used for improving appetite. Fruit pulp used in ayurvedic medicine.

position: Fairly common in in dry parts of india.

Butea monosperma images| flameoftheforest | Palash

Scientific classification of Butea monosperma and image with Taxonomy
Kingdom: Plantae
Palas tree
Palash
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Butea
Species: B. monosperma

Botanical name:butea monosperma

Description:-palas is well-known tree of india.its scarlet and orange flowers come in such profusion that the tree has been very aptly name the "flame of the forest". leaves compound and each leaf comprising three leaflets
flowers appear in about February to march.the fruit is a flat pod having a single seed.

Distribution:- more common in the plains or lower regions of hills.



Medicianl uses of Palash: Flowers of this plant are diuretic. gum of the tree is known as "bengal kino" and contains tannin, used in the treatment of diarrhea. seeds are used anthelmintic, in the treatment of worms.
Gum "bengal" and flowers yield yellow dye.
provides excellent habitat for lac insect.
leaves used for making plate sand bowls.
this tree is highly valued as a host tree for the lac insect,
the flower yield a yellow dye. Leaves are largely used for making bowls and plates for serving food, and as fodder.

Syzygium Cumuni | Jambhul Fruit Images (Picture)


Classification and taxonomy with Image
Jamun fruit
Syzygium Cumuni jambhul
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Myrtales
Family:Myrtaceae
Genus:Syzygium
Species:s.cumuni




Description -a large evergreen tree; leaves opposite, 8-20 cm long,leathery, smooth,shining.

Flowers small, dull white, in large bunches.

Fruits 1.5-4 cm long,avoid.,purplish when young, almost black when ripe.

Distribution:-the tree grows in moist deciduous forests,being more common along water channels;it is not found wild in very arid region.

Medicinal Uses:-The fruits is largely eaten raw. The wood is used for miscellaneous purpose.

Acorus Calamus | Bhuta | Gorabach | Vekhand

Classification  of  Acorus Calamus
Gorabach image

Acorus Calamus

Kingdom: Plantae

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Liliopsida

Order: Acorales

Family: Acoraceae

Genus: Acorus

Species: A. calamus
Indian Name

Hindi :-Gorabach

Marathi :-Vekhand

Sanskrit :-Bhuta-nasini


Nature :-A herbaceous plant with long, creeping and much-branched aromatic rhizomes.Flowering shoots supported by a large leaf like structure called spathe. Flowers small, pale-green , in 5-10 cm long cylindrical spikes called spadix; fruits yellowish in color.



Medicinal Uses The dried rhizomes of the plant constitute the drug Calamus and are used in medicine.

Due to presence of a volatile oil, Calamus acts as a carminative, that is , it relieves flatulence and feelingof overfulness of stomach, and increase appetite.It is considered a household ramedy for an flatulent colic.Due to its essential oil contents, its act as an expectorant, that is ,it promotes flow of bronchial secretions and is useful in diarrhea and dysentery. Calamus also acts as emetic, and larger doses can causes violent vomiting.

The leaves and rhizomes are also used for flavouring drinks , for for primary roots are used as vermifuge. The oil from the rhizome is good nerve-stimulant and the essential-oil-free alcoholic extract show marked sedative and analgesic.The antibacterial activity of the rhizome has recently been shown experimentally.

Acalypha Indica | Khokahli


Acalypha Indica |  Khokahlikuppi


Family:- Euphorbiaceae
Common name:-
Hindi:- khokali,kuppi

Medicinal uses of Acalypha Indica :- the whole plant of this herb collected in its flowering stages; and dried, constituents the drugs Acalypha.

The properties of this drug resemble those of Ipecac.it is useful in broncitis
,asthma, pneumonia and rheumatism, its roots and leaves have laxative properties. juice of leaves is considered an efficient emetic, that is ,a medicine for causing vomiting. A product of fresh leaves is useful on ulcers.



Nature- An annual herb, up about 75cm high. Leaves 3-8cm long ,ovate, thin usually 3-nerved;margins of the leaves toothed; leafstalks longer than leaves. flowers auxiliary erect spikes; female flower supported by conspicuous wedge-shaped bracts: male flower : minute , borne towards the top of their spike. Fruits small, hairy, concealed in the bracts.

Adhatoda zeylanica | Arusa| Vasaka

 Classification of Adhatoda  zeylanica and Image.
Arusa image


Family:-Acanthaceae
Common and local names:-
Hindi:-Arusa
Marathi:-Adulsa
Sanskrit:-Vasaka


Description of Adhatoda  zeylanica:-A tall much-branched, dence, evergreen shrub, with large, lance-shaped leaves. Flowers in dense, short spikes; stalks of the spike shorter than leaves. Leaves-like structure called bracts, present on the spikes; these are conspicuously veined. Corolla(the whorls of petals) of the flower is white few purplish markings. Fruits capsular, 4-seeded.


Medicinal uses of Arusa: The "drug use" from the fresh or dried leaves of the plant. Leaves contain an alkaloid vasicine, and an essential oil. The chief use of vasaka is as an expectorant; it is given in the form of juice, syrup or decoration, It softens the thick sputum, facilitates its coming out and thus bring about quick relief in bronchitis. The expectorant activity is due to stimulation of bronchial glands. Larger doses can, however, cause irritation and vomiting. Recent experiments have confirmed the usefulness of vasaka.


• The leaves of this plant are also utilized as green manure and for yielding a yellow dye.

• Due to the presence of certain alkaloids, the leaves are not easily attacked by fungi and insects, and are, therefore, used in packing or storing fruits.

• The leaves emit an unpleasant smell and are spared from browsing; the plan is, therefore, suitable for planting in soil reclamation programmed, seeds are also useful..

more plants species are there....

Greater Galangal | Adrak

Greater Galangal  | Adrak
Galangal image

Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Liliopsida
Order:Zingiberales
Family:Zingiberaceae
Subfamily:Alpinioideae
Tribe:Alpinieae
Genus:Alpinia
Species:A. galanga

Common Name :-Kulinjan

Botanical Name :-Alpinia Galanga

Description :-A herbaceous plant up2 m high; leaves long, narrow, green above, pale beneath, whitish on margins, median nerve very strong. Flowers about 3 cm long, greenish, white, in compound dense bunches; lip of corolla white, streaked with red. Fruits orange-red, size of small cherry. Rhizomes slightly aromatic.

Distribution :- The plants occurs naturally in the easter Himalayas and the Western Ghats; it is also cultivated at several places.
Medicinal Uses :-Greater Galangal is the dried rhizome of this plant. It is useful in rheumatisms, respiratory complaints, specially of children, and in bronchial catarrh. The drugs is also considered useful in stomach complaints and as a tonic, deodorant and disinfectant.It is a stimulant aromatic like ginger.

Other Species
:-Another important species of the genus Alpinia is a .offcinarum hance(lesser galangal); it is native of china. The rhizomes obtained from the Chinese species have stronger odour and taste. The plant is extensively cultivated in Bengal and northern India

Alstonia Scholaris | Saptparni


Alstonia Scholaris
saptparni

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Tribe: Plumeriae
Subtribe: Alstoniinae
Genus: Alstonia
Species: A. scholaris

Common Name :- hindi:-chhatin
Gujrati:-saptparna
Marathi:-satvin
English name:- Devil”s tree

Location:-
it is Large green reaching up to about 25m high ; having bitter milky juice: bark rough, dark grey; branches whorled; base of the tree often fluid or buttressed. Leaves leathery,10-20 cm long,4-7 in a whorl. Flowers small, greenish white, spice-scented in many- flowered clusters. Fruits very long, 30-60 cm, narrow and slender in pairs and forming dence clusters.

Medicinal Uses:-
Chhatim is the dried bark of the tree.
This drug is considered very efficacious in chronic diarrhea and dysentery. It is useful in material fever and brings down the temperature gradually and with ought causing perspiration or exhaustion, which usually follow other medicine for malaria.
Chhatim is useful also in skin diseases.

Other Uses:
The wood of the tree is used for inferior quality furniture, packing cases, tea boxes, pencils and matchsticks.the timber of the tree was used in olden times for making wooden slates for school children ; this was the origin of the specific name scholaris for the plant.

Withania Somnifera | Ashvagandha

Withania Somnifera  | Ashvagandha
Ashvagandha Fruit


Kingdom : Plantae

Subkingdom : Tracheobionta

Division : Magnoliophyta

Class : Magnoliopsida

Subclass : Asteridae

Order : Solanales

Family : Solanaceae

Genus : Withania

Species : W.Somanifera

Indian Name:- Ashvagandha,Amukkiran,Ghoda,Asor..

Nature :’-its is a small middle-sized under shrub, to the height of 1.4 m, stem and branches covered with minute star- shaped hairs.

Leaves : leaves up to 10 cm long, ovate, hairy like branched.

Flower :-flowers are pale green, small about 1 cm long, few flower borne, smooth red, enclosed in the inflated and membranous calyx.

Medicinal Uses:-Ashvagandha is useful in Consumption and Sexual And Rheumation.
 It Is Diuteric
.It Promotes Urination Acts As A Narcotic Nd Removes Functional Obstruction Of Body .The Root Powder Is Applied Locally On Ulcers And Inflammations.
The Antibiotic And Antibiotical Activity Of The Roots As Well As Leaves Has Recently Been Shown Experimentally.
Withania coagulense occurs in north western india. Its.Its Fruits are Useful In digestive and liver complaints.


Mentha Species | Pudina classification | image


Scientific classification of pudina and Image.
Mentha Species Pudina
Pudina plant

kingdom: plantae
division: magnoliophyta
class: magnoliopsida
order: lamiales
family: lamiaceae
genus: mentha
Local and common name:-Pudina ,Pudinhara ,

This plant is related to the menthe genus and its aromatic herbs.

many more species grows wild; some of there cultivated.

the chief constituent for which these plants are valued are menthol and peppermint oil.

this medicinal plant is an erect branched herb up to about 55 cm high.

leaves up to 6 cm long. flowers small, in small brunches, borne on axile leaves,medicinal seeds are also very useful.

Medicinal uses of pudina plant :- The dried leaves and flowering tops of the plant make the drug peppermint, this drugs use in treatment of vomiting and nausea. bruised leaves are applied in headache and other pains.

the main use of drugs is or extraction for peppermint oil and is largely used in medicine for stomach disorders the oil is also antiseptic at here is several name of (pudina) like koshu ,horsemint

Saraka indica | ashoka tree


Kingdom : Plantae
Saraca Indica
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class : Magnoliopsida
Order : Fabales
Family : Fabaceae
Subfamily : Caesalpinioideae
Tribe : Detarieae
Genus : Saraca
Species : S. asoca

Nature of ashoka tree
This is a small tree.

Leaves :-Leaves are compound and evergreen which forming dense crown, where leaflets 7-24cm long and slightly leathery.

Flowers :-Flowers are bright in orange color mostly sometimes they are in yellow. Three color is due to there bract, in small dense bunches.

Fruit :- Fruits 12-20 cm long , flat seed many.

Location :-This tree mostly occurs in central and eastern part in India.

Medicinal uses of ashoka tree
:-Its mostly used as an astringent of excessive menstruation as a uterine sedative. It can be used as a substitute or Ergot in treatment of uterine haemorrhages.
Many fraction isolated from the bark of the tree have been tested for their utility in uterine disorders, but the results were negative.
Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. Seeds are reported to be useful in urinary discharges.

Tamarindus Indica | Imali with scientific classification and image

Tamarindus Indica
imli(Tamarindus Indica  )
Local Name :- Imli
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Fabales
Family:Fabaceae
Subfamily:Caesalpinioideae
Tribe:Detarieae
Genus:Tamarindus
Species:T. indica

Nature:-
This is a large tree.

Leaves:-Leaves are compound, leafletswehere 12-20 pairs, about1.2cm long

Flowers:-Flowers in yellowish with reddish streaks, in small erect clusters among the leaves.

Fruits:-Fruits 5-15 cm long 3-4 cm broad, fleshy, and pendulous, which is brown in colour seeds dark brown and shining.

Location:- these trees occurs almost in central and southern part of India.

Medicinal Uses Of Tamarindus Indica (Imali):-
It is useful in fever, as a laxative it is taken singly or in mixture with other purgative drugs. When mixed with other purgative drugs it reduces their laxative property.
The wood of this tree is resistant to insect attacks and is largely used for agriculture instruments it makes good charcoal and is used for gunpowder. Leaves yield a yellow dye. The acid flesh of the fruits is used for cleaning silver and jelly industry, seed powder is used for size certain types of cloth and as wood cement.

Lawsonia Inermis | Mehandi



Lawsonia Inermis
kingdom: Plantae
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order Myrtales
Family: Lythraceae
Genus: Lawsonia
Species: L. inermis

Local Name :-Mehndi,, Mohuz, Benjati, Gornti, Mendika

Nature :-It’s a shrub.

its occur several parts of India mostly in the drier parts of the dry ground. but usually cultivated in dodges.

Leaves :-Leaves are opposite with 3-4 cm long and sharp point.

Flower :-Flowers are small with whitish or pinkish in color in terminal large bunches.

Fruits :-Fruits are mostly small like size of pea plant. And they are round with many seeds.

Medicinal Uses:

This shrubs leaves have several medicinal properties.
They are acerbic and used as prophylactic against skin disease. The stewing of leaves is used as mouthwash in sore throat. The paste of leaves is mostly used for headache and burning sensation in feet. The bark and the seeds of this plant are also reported to be used in ayurvedic and unani medicine. the oil obtained from this shrub is used in perfumery purpose.

Cinnamomum Verum(Dalchini)

Cinnamomum Verum
 Kingdom: Plantae
Dalchini
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Laurales
Family: Lauraceae
Genus: Cinnamomum
Species: C. zeylanicum
Local Name:-Dalchini,, Lavangpati, , Darushila
Nature :- :-It is a evergreen tree
Leaves:-Leaves are large, elliptical, thick leathery and pointed at the tip. leaves are lighter in colored beneath.
Flowers:Flowers are minute in large hairy clusters.
Fruits:-Fruits are elliptical and about 1.8 cm long with dark purple.
Location:-Mostly occurs in lower elevation even below 250m.
Medicinal Uses :-Its useful in vomiting. IT is commonly used as a coding
The oil obtained from the bark is called cinnamon. Bark oil. its used s a carminative. The oil obtained from the leaves is used as a flavorings agent and preservative for the sweets, soap etc. and local application on certain rheumatic pains.. other species Camphor used in other way. and C.Camphora, C.Tamala Is Useful.

Harmer | Peganum harmala | wild rue

Classification of Peganum harmala

Kingdom: Plantae

Division: Magnoliophyta
gandhya

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Sapindales

Family: Nitrariaceae

Species: P. harmala

Common name:- harmer, isband, gandhya, wild rue.

Nature:- it is a shrub about 35-85 cm high.

Leaves:-leaves are mostly 5 to 8 cm long, which is divided into a large indefinite narrow segments.

Flower:-flowers are mostly in 2-3 cm diameter, white in colour which is single in axiles of leaves.

Fruits:- fruits are capsular,having sphere in shape and almost 5-8 mm in diameter,deeply lobed.seeds 3-4 mm long , brownish of , of various shapes and with rediculated seed coat.

Medicinal uses:-the seeds contain several alkaloids and are useful in asthma,fever, jaundice and complains of difficult and menstruation. They are used also as narcotic and emetic.

The seeds yield a red dye . Powdered roots mixed in mustard oil kill lice in hair. The plant, kept in a room repels mosquitoes

Pergularia | Karail

Pergularia
Pergularia  | Karail


Kingdom: Plantae

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Subclass: Asteridae

Order: Gentianales

Family: Apocynaceae

Subfamily: Asclepiadaceae

Genus: Pergularia


Common name:- sadovani, karail, yagaphala,veliparti. etc..

Nature:-it is a herb.stem is hairy and with milky juice.

Leaves:-Leaves are 4-6 cm long, sometimes more, ovate or round, hairy on lower surface, deeply chordate at base.

Flowers:-Flowers are mostly pale in colour , small, in short clusters.
Fruits:-Fruits are reflexed in pairs, and reflexed in pairs 5-8 cm long,1.4 cm broad,which is covered with spinous outgrowths.

Medicinal uses:-Mostly every part of the plants are used in as medicine
the juice of the leaves is given in catarrhal affection and infantilediarrhoea. It forms a constituent of a purgative preparation given in rheumatism .

Psoralea Corylifolia | Bakhuchi

bakhuchiPsoralea Corylifolia

Kingdom: Plantae

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Fabales

Family: Fabaceae

Subfamily: Faboideae

Tribe: Psoraleeae

Genus: Psoralea

Common Name:-Bachi, latakasturi,sugandha kantak,kala gija,bakhuchi…

Nature:-It is an posture herb, and with densely glands –dotted branches.

Leaves:-Mostly leaves are round in shape, dotted with black glands on the both surfaces.

Flowers:-Flowers are small, bluish purple , with 12-35 bunches , arising in axile of leaves.

Fruits:-Mostly fruits are black,round in shape with closely pitted; seed one , smooth.
medicinal uses:-seeds of this plants compose the drug.


The seed contain an essential oil which is very effective on certain bacteria causing skin disease. Roots of the plants are reporetd to be useful in caries of teeth: and the leaves in diarrhea

Averrhoa bilimbi

bilimbi
Bilimbi ( Averrhoa)
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Oxalidales
Family: Oxalidaceae
Genus: Averrhoa
Species: bilimbi
It is essentially a tropical tree, which has lower resistant to cold than the carambola, it grows most of in rich and

well-drained soil. It favours mostly distributed rainfall throughout the year, .. this tree requires protection from wind and cold.


Nature:The bilimbi tree is long-lived, reaches 2-3 m in height. Its trunk is short and quickly divides up into branching.

 Bilimbi Leaves:-

leaves, 6-49 cm long,and they are alternate, imparipinnate and cluster at branch extremities. There are around 9 to 16


Flowers:-

Its flowers, like its fruits, are found in hairy panicles that directly emerge from the trunk as well as from the oldest, most solid branches. The yellowish or purplish flowers are tiny, fragrant and have 5 petals.


Fruits:-

The bilimbi fruit's form ranges from ellipsoid to almost cylindrical. Its length is 4-10 cm.
The bilimbi is 5-sided, but in a less marked way than the carambola. At the stem's end, the fruit is capped with a star-shape calyx. If unripe, it is bright green and crispy. It turns yellowish as it ripens. The flesh is juicy, green and extremely acidic. The fruit's skin is glossy and very thin
Seeds are small (4 mm) and brown. They are form is disc-like and flattened



Medicinal uses:-

mostly the leaves serve as a paste on itches, swelling, rheumatism, mumps or skin eruptions. In or to another place, they re used for bites of poisonous creatures. A leaf infusion is efficient against or as an after-birth tonic,.

Sterculiya Urens | karaya

Scientific classification of Sterculiya Urens 

Kingdom: Plantae
Kandol
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malvales
Family: Sterculiaceae
Genus: Sterculia

Common Names of Sterculiya urens:-gulu, karai, kandol, thondi,kulu,ponaku

Nature:-It is a normal size deciduous tree, Noticeable in an unpleasant way in the forest by its white or greenish-white and shining and also by the smooth paper bark.

Leaves:-Leaves are mostly crowded at the end of the branches, which is in diameter by 25-45 cm,with their shallowly 5-lobed,with densely hairy on under surface.

Flowers:-Flowers are mostly yellowish –brown in color, small ..in large with very densely hairy erect bunches.

Fruits:-Fruits are mostly thick in size and they are in red carpels densely covered with stinging hairs.

Medicinal Uses:-The gum release from the stem of the tree has its medicinal uses:, that is called karaya gum. That is used as a mechanical purgative. The karaya gum when applied to the skin has a softer
Softer action than tragacanth gum. The wood of this tree is used for mostly domestic purpose.. like a doors , paking cases, carving etc. the seeds of the plants are nontoxic. The gum is eaten in East Indian cookery (curries).

Swertia Chirayata

Classification of Swertia Chirayata

Kingdom: Plantae
chirayata
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Gentianales
Family: Gentianaceae
Genus: Swertia

Common names :-nelabevu,kirata-tikta,nila vembu,chirata.

Nature:-It is a herb with height of 1.6 cm. The plant prefers light , medium and heavy soils.

Leaves:-Leaves are mostly appears in opposite pairs, about 12 cm long,  without stalk.

Flowers:-Flowers are mostly pale green , tinged with purple. Its flowering appears from September to October.

Fruits:-Fruits are likely 8  mm long and ovoid in shape.

Meidcinal Uses:-Chirayata is known as its bitter properties.it is given in malerial fever.it is given in fever and weakness. It is well known for its stomachal property also. It also contains xanthones, which are reputedly effective against malaria and tuberculosis, and also amarogentin, a glycoside that may protect the liver against carbon tetrachloride poisoning.


Euphorbia Hirta | Nelapalai


Common Names:-lal dudhi, barker, dudheli, accegida, nelapalai, nanabala etc..

Nature:-its an annual herb.which is erect upto 45 cm high
Nelapalai
.

Leaves:-mostly leaves in opposite pairs small, upto about 5 cm long.dark green on upper portion.

Flowers:-flowers whitish , minute , in small , axiallary, stalked clusters.

Fruits:-fruits small, 1-2 mm diameter, hairy;seeds 3-angled, wrinkled, light reddish brown.

Medicinal Properties:-

The entire plant, collected in the flowering and fruiting stage and dried, constitutes the drugs. The leaves of euphorbia hirta are eaten as vegetable. The plants promotes formation and flow of milk. The roots of the plants useful to stop vomiting. The milky juice of the plants is applied on warts.


Ephedra Gerardiana


Common Names:-asmaniya,khanda,budshur
khanda

Nature:-It is a small shrub. It is a shrub which has height about 1 meter. mostly there stems are timbered lower, branches almost look like whorled which are initially a little scattering and after that climbing upwards.

Leaves:-leaves compact to little 2- notched sheath.

Flowers: flowers jointly in ovate point.

Fruits:-fruits are mostly 9 mm long , ovoid , red , and they are luscious bracts.
Medicinal Uses:-the drug which obtained from this is useful as a stimulant for heart.
 In the cases where heart is affected by infections of pneumonia.  It has been also used in rashes.

Digitalis Purpurea | Tilpushpi

Digitalis Purpurea | Tilpushpi

Common Names:-Tilpushpi..etc
Tilpushpi

Nature:It is a permanent herb.which has height about 1.4 meter.

Leaves:-Lower basal leaves are long-stalked.thats opposite upper basal leaves almost without stalks.

Flowers:-Flowers are mostly 7 cm long in white or purple color, with rough lobes.

Fruits:- Fruits are likely elliptical in shape.

Medicinal Uses:-Mostly the drug initiated by this plants dried leaves.
The leaves dries up to 65 degree temperature. Important uses of this drug is in heart disease.
 This drug Give a promotion to and causes the activity of all muscle tissue which is almost uses in the case of crowded heart collapse.

Ricinus communis | erand | arandi |bherenda | Haralu

Ricinus communis | erand | arandi |bherenda | Haralu
Common names:-Erand, arandi,bherenda. Haralu etc..

arandi

Nature:- it is a shrub.

Leaves:-leaves are bulky, circular in outline, broad and partially separated into 7 lobes.

Flowers:-flowers mostly bulky in size with in big incurable bunches.

Fruits:-fruits are like a thorny container , somewhat noticeable into six parts.seeds four-sided figure ,
Seed –coat crustaceous.

Medicinal uses:-this plants seeds are useful in the medicine. The seeds are toxic and yet 3 or 4 seeds can be lethal. Oil which obtained from the seeds known as castor-oil, which is used as laxative. Castor-oil is used in marketing in birth control device jellies and creams.

Elettaria cardamomum | Elachi | Elaka

Elettaria cardamomum (elachi)
elayachi

Common name:- Elaka,yelam,elachi,chhoti ilaichi, veldode...etc

Nature:-it is a herb. A herb with overweight branched corm, broad and several rigid stems. Which going up to 4 meter high.

Leaves:-leaves are mostly large with 40-95 cm long, slim, with one strong middle nerve.

Flower:-flowers are about 5 cm long they are green and probably yellow in color.

Fruits:-fruits are not so big but they easy to get to in market are faded with sulphur vapors.

Medicinal uses:-drugs obtained by the dried fruits of this plant.
The seeds are also useful but they are taken out from the fruits just when there use required. Cardamom is used mainly for easing turgidity. ,, to encourage digestion.
It is mostly known s flavoring agent. Its most of uses in the cooking and making of cakes also.
The oil which obtained from seeds is used for flavoring beverages.

Ferula Narthex Boiss | Hing | Sap | Yang

Scientific classification of Ferula narthex boiss (hing)


Kingdom: plantae
Hing

Division: magnoliophyta

Class: magnoliopsida

Order: fabales

Family: fabaceae

Subfamily: faboideae

Tribe: galegeae

Genus: glycyrrhiza


Common names:-sap, yang, hengu, hing, balhika, inguva..etc..

Nature:-it is a big permanent herb with healthy carrot-shaped roots.

Leaves:-leaves are two kinds the lower one is simple and 25-65 cm longand elliptical. Whereas upper

Part of this leave is separated into numerous segments. Young leaves are hairy..

Flowers:-flowers are small and mostly yellow in color.

Fruits:-fruits are mostly 10 mm long concerning semi as broader.

Medicinal uses:-its mostly used as a flavor . It is vital in incline in most pulses and vegetable curry

Arrangements.. It has a some narcotic properties.it is refreshment for respiratory and nervous system.

It is practical outwardly on stomach to excite the bowels.

Mulethi "madhuyasthi"

Scientific classification of mulethi
Kingdom: plantae
Division: magnoliophyta
Class: magnoliopsida
Order: fabales
Family: fabaceae
Subfamily: faboideae
Tribe: galegeae
Genus: glycyrrhiza
Species: g. Glabra

Common names:-madhuyasthi, jethi madh, mulathi, atimadhuram, jasthi madhu ..etc..

Nature:- it is a herb. Its size about 1.8 meter high.

Leaves:-leaves are compound. Each leaflets with 4 – 7 pairs.

Flowers:-flowers are light violet in colour, small in size,.

Fruits:- fruits are 1-4 cm long, they are flat and densely covered with small pointed outgrowths.

Medicinal uses:-for making of drugs this plants dried roots and subversive stems are useful..its well known as liquorice which promotes urination and its flow of urine activity as also antimycins.its powder mixed with butter and honey , is useful on cuts and wounds. because of its fresh test and soft properties , liquorice is largely used in adding of syrups. The leaves of this plants , when applied as a plaster are believed to be useful in burns of the head..

Caesalpinia pulcherrima | shankashur

Caesalpinia pulcherrima | shankashur

Kingdom: plantae
Shankashur
Division: magnoliophyta
Class: magnoliopsida
Order: fabales
Family: fabaceae
Subfamily : caesalpinioideae
Genus: caesalpinia
Species: c. Pulcherrima (shankashur)

Nature:-it is a shrub. Its height about 2-3 meter.

Leaves:-the leaves are bipinnate, 15-45 cm long, productive 2-10 pairs of pinnae.

Flowers:-the flowers are borne in racemes up to 24 cm long, each flower with five yellow, orange or red petals. The fruit is a pod 6-12 cm long.
It is a striking ornamental plant, widely grown in tropical gardens.
Its found in the india in the tropical rain forests. With a beautiful inflorescence in yellow, red and orange, it is called "ratnagundhi" informally.

Medicinal uses:-
Some of medicinal uses for caesalpinia pulcherrima, which is known as ayoowiri. The juice from the leaves is said to cure fever, the juice from the flower cures sores, and the seeds cure bad cough, breathing difficulty, and chest pain. Some parts of it induce abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Symplocos racemosa " lodh"

Classification of Symplocos racemosa | lodh


Kingdom: plantae
lodh
Division: magnoliophyta
Class: magnoliopsida
Order: ericales
Family: symplocaceae
Genus: symplocos
Common names:-lodh,lodhra,..etc..

Nature:-this is a small tree. Which has height about 6-7 meter high.

Leaves:-leaves are 10-20 cm long.they are mostly dark green in colour, and pointed at the tip with toothed margins.

Flowers:-as comparison flowers are small which has 1.4 cm diameter which appears mostly white or pale yellow in color.

Fruits:-fruits are 1.4 cm long with purplish black in color.
Medicinal uses:-the drug obtained by this trees bark.. Which is useful in digestive disorder, and also helpful in some of the eyes diseases and ulcers. It is used in plasters and useful on wounds for advertising growth of wounds.it is careful useful in hypertrophy and in fat in urine..

Scientific classification of Podophyllum | "padwal"

Scientific classification of Podophyllum | padwal

Kingdom: plantae
Padwal

Division: magnoliophyta

Class: magnoliopsida

Order: ranunculales

Family: berberidaceae

Genus: podophyllum

Species: p. Hexandrum


Common Name:-banbaigan,papri,venivel,padwal

Nature:- it’s a erect herb with a creeping rootstock.

Flowers:-flower bearing branch is erect, leafy at the top: leaves two with 15-25 cm diameter, deeply divided in 3-5 lobes. Flowers 2.5 -5 cm diameter, white or pinkish, with cup shaped, usually solitary.

Fruits:-fruit ovoid, 2.5 -5 cm scarlet.

Medicinal uses:-the dried rhizomes of the plants are used in medicine .
The rhizomes contains a resin podophyllin. It is purgative: its action is slow but severe and a large doses can cause acute irritation and griping..

Artemisia maritima | ajvain | ajmod

Scientific  classification of Artemisia maritima | ajvain


Kingdom: plantae
ajvain

Division: magnoliophyta

Class: magnoliopsida

Order: asterales

Family: asteraceae

Genus: artemisia

Species: a. Maritima

Common name:-gadadhar, ajvain, ajmod, phillaur..


Nature:-it is a heavy, permanent fragrant shrub has height about 1 meter high.

Leaves:-leaves are mostly 2-5 centimeter long, mostly whitish in color separated into many fine, linear segments.
.
Flowers:-flowers are small in size, and mostly in little spikes.

Medicinal uses:-the drugs obtained by this plants through their dried leaves and flowers head.it has been suggested that the drug should be collected in near the beginning of spring by the time at which the flower heads have not completely developed. Main use of this drug is for throwing out of squirms from stomach. The drug is also useful in fevers .. And as a refreshment.

Gaultheria Fragrantissima | "Jirhap"

Gaultheria Fragrantissima | "Jirhap"

Kingdom: Plantae
gandhapura
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Gaultheria
Common Name:-jirhap,gandhapura,..etc..

Nature:- its shrub has height about 3.2 meter high. Stem is branched and bark color mostly orange-brown.its well known as wintergreen.

Leaves:-leaves are mostly 12 cm long, leathery, dotted, and with glands.

Flowers:-flowers are small in size, mostly they are greenish white because of their evergreen nature.

Fruits:- fruits are mostly circular, boxed in blue sepals.

Medicinal Uses:-the oil is useful in the treatment of many forms atrophic arthritis. It is useful in destroy hookworm disease and also has stimulant drug properties.
Drug obtained by this has also prevented certain types of tumor formation in animals.
The oil is useful as a maintaining Argentine soft drinks, and toothpastes.. Etc...The oil is also useful in many preparation of killing mosquitoes...And other insects...


Bacopa Monnieri

Kingdom: Plantae
nirubrahmi

Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Genus: Bacopa
Species: B. monnieri
Common Names :-safed chamani,barna, ghola,neerpirami, nirubrahmi
,
Nature:-it is a herb.which spread on the ground.

Leaves:-Leaves are small and juicy..

Flowers:-flowers almost come up in the axiles of the leaves and are bear on the small pedicels. .
Medicinal Uses:-it is respected in medicine as a tonic for stress and is agreed in nervous disorders.., mental diseases,. Leaf juice is given to infant in bronchitis:. Leaf juice mixed with petroleum is useful on rheumatism. The plant is measured a blood cleanser.brahmine which is a cadiac tonic, that provide muscle and quality to the feeling,

Atropa Acuminata | Dhatooro

Scientific classification of Atropa acuminata (dhatooro)

Kingdom: plantae
Atropa (sagangur)
Division: magnoliophyta
Class: magnoliopsida
Order: solanales
Family: solanaceae
Genus: atropa
Species: a. Belladonna


Common names:-angurhafa, sagangur,..etc

Nature:-its perpetual herb with 50 to 100 centimeter height.

Leaves:-leaves re mostly brownish green in color it 5-15 cm long.

Flowers:-flowers in pairs about 3 cm long yellowish brown in color..

Medicinal uses :-the drug obtained by this plant through their young leaves and flowers.drugs which obtained by the leaves bring about a decrease in emission of sweats and gastric glands..mostly its known as belladonna.
It acts as strong drug which used to relieve acute abdominal pain and other irregular indication ..
It is also useful in contending cough. Because of toxic substances in roots they are working mostly in research for outer application on irritation..

Boerhavia Diffusa | Punarnava


Scientific classification of  boerhavia diffusa  | punarnava
Kingdom: plantae
Punarnava
division: magnoliophyta
class: magnoliopsida
order: caryophyllales
family: nyctaginaceae
genus: boerhavia
Common names:-santhi,moto satado,ataki,sanadika,gonajali,sanadika,,sothaghna,..etc..

Nature:-it is a herb mostly spreads on the ground ..

Leaves:-leaves are small with whitish on the lower surface and upper green.

Flowers:-flowers are very small reddish in colour .

Fruits:-fruits with five coloring glandular.

Medicinal uses:-this plants root is useful.
The drug punarnava made up by this plants leaves ands eeds.
This drug consists the alkaloid. Real use of this drug is diuretic.. But large dose can bring regarding vomiti ng

Berberis Aristata | Daru Haldi


Scientific  classification of  berberis aristata  | daru haldi

Kingdom: plantae
daru haldi image
Division: magnoliophyta
Class: magnoliopsida
Order: ranunculales
Family: berberidaceae
Genus: berberis
Common names:-daru haldi, daruhald,rasvat,maramanjal.. Etc.
.
Nature:-it is shrub.

Leaves:- fascicled in axile of branched,simple spines, veins vary spines..

Flowers:-flowers are mostly yellow in colour with short bunches.

Fruits:-fruits are mostly bluish in colour.

Medicinal uses:-berberis belongs of dried roots of this plants and also of positive other personally related plants go to the same type. Mostly roots bark and inferior stems used with boiled water, stressed and condensed till a semi- solid mass is obtained which is known as rasaut.

Rasaut is practical outwardly on eye lids to treat ophthalmia. It is also useful in fever.
The root and stem give up a yellow dye, which is mostly used for flogging and purifying leather.
The drug also used sometimes in malarial fever.

Catharanthus Roseus | sadabahar



Scientific classification of  sadabahar plant 
Kingdom: Plantae
sadaphuli

Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Catharanthus
Species: C. roseus

common names:-sadabahar, nayantara, sadaphal, ainshakti, pillaganneru..Periwinkleetc..

About Leaves :-Leaves are ovate in shape and they are opposite.

About Flowers:-mostly flowers in axillaries clusters of 2-3,, petals are seems white with pink in colour. And they are thorough the years.

Fruits:-fruits are follicular.
Medicinal uses of of catharanthus Roseus:-mostly drugs contained by this plants roots. Which are mostly known to there toxic properties.for practically it proved that most of animals have show that certain of catharanthus as useful in leukemia.
This plant is famous for there ornamental planting.

Nature :-it is a herb up to one-meter height. leaves are shinning green in clusters. flowers are white or pink in colour.

Distribution: The plant is a native of madagascar, but found throughout india.

Special characteristics :-
ornamental plant cultivated for its white and pink flowers.

Medicinal uses of Catharanthus roseus:
Roots and leaves are used in medicine. the plant contains alkaloids,which are used in the treatment of tumor, leukemia, hypertension and has a sedative property.
position: Very common; has least risk in the wild.


Centella Asiatica | Brahmi | indian pennywort

Scientific classification of  Centella asiatica , brahmi


Kingdom: plantae
Brahmi image
Division: magnoliophyta
Class: magnoliopsida
Order: apiales
Family: mackinlayaceae
Genus: centella
Species: c. Asiatica

Common names:-thankhuriya, brahmi, brahmi buti, brihmi, bokkudu..etc..

Nature:-it is mostly a creeping stems which bear roots on their nodes.. It is well known as "indian pennywort"..

Leaves:-leaves are small . The size of the single leaves near about 2 to 4 cm in diameter. Sometimes they are rounded or kidney shaped.

Flowers:- flowers are minute and pinkish –red in colour.

Fruits:’-fruits are small with 8-9 ridged.

Medicinal uses:-this plants grows in moist climates so mostly we can see this plants near bank of river and sometimes near ponds also.
Drug obtained by this plant through their fresh and dried leaves and stem also. For preparation of medicine root and seeds are also useful.. This plant gives asiaticoside, which is useful in leprosy.. This plant gives certain kinds of tuberculosis also..which we can know as a tonic of brain..

Costus Speciosus | Kushta | koshi


Scientific classification of  costus speciosus  | kushta
koshi


Kingdom: plantae
Division: magnoliophyta
Class: liliopsida
Order: zingiberales
Family: costaceae
Genus: costus
Species: c. Speciosus

Common names:-kust,pokaramul,penva,keoli,kimuka,chinnkoova.. Etc.
.
Nature:-it is a herb.

Leaves:-leaves are mostly big with 12-35 centemeter long.they are mostly without petiole.

Flowers:-flower are white in colour with red bracts.

Fruits:- fruits are red in colour with black seeds..

Medicinal uses of costus speciosus(kushta):-drugs obtained by this plants through
There fresh and dried rhizomes.
Roots uses as making for tonic.
Roots are also useful in fever.
The rhizomes is comestible later cooking ,which is rich in starch..
Mostly Rhizome of this plant is useful in the medicinal purpose which contains diosgerin, for use of differentiability, anti inflammatory andantispasmodic.for obtaining diosgenin. rhizome is edible after cooking.

A tall erect tuberous-rooted plant; leaves large dark rich-green, lanceolate; flowers large white, numerous in very dense spikes; bracts bright red.
A common plant growing wild in swampy places in Konkan, Deccan and S. M. country. Flowering August-October.
When in blossom a most beautiful object due to the delightful combination of colours. An excellent plant in the neighborhood of tank or pool in the gardens.



Habit

it is a small annual herb which found in shady places. stem and leaves are juicy. leaves are arranged spirally on the stem. flowers are mostly white in colour, with red bracts



position of costus speciosus

During monsoon it is found all over india and plant is succulent in nature .

Hemidesmus Indicus | Anantmul


Scientific classification of  hemidesmus indicus  |  anantmul
Kingdom: plantae
Anantmul
Division: magnoliophyta
Class: magnoliopsida
Order: gentianales
Family: apocynaceae
Subfamily: asclepiadoideae
Genus: hemidesmus
Species: h. Indicus

Common names:-anantmul, anantvel, salsa ,nannari..etc..

Nature:-it is current creeper.

Leaves:-leaves are large in shape and size..mostly leaves are 5-12 centemeter with dark green in colour.

Flowers:-flowers are very small,mostly they are greenish with compact clusters.

Fruits:-fruits are 29 cm long. They are pointed at the tip.seeds are black.

Medicinal uses of hemidesmus indicus (anantmul):-the drugs obtained by this plants through there dried roots which is useful in fever and also in skin diseases .
This drug has another most useful properties that is to purify the blood.
This plant gives re-freshness after chewing.
Roots are used as diuretic.
It is a well-known plant as blood purifier.
it is also used for improving appetite. young leaves if chewed are refreshing. medicinal preparations like "Raktadoshantak", "Safee" and" Surakta" contain the extract of this plant.
it is also used in ayurvadic and yunani medicine system.


Nature of Emidesmus indicus
It is a perennial prostrate climber with different shapes of leaves.
rootstocks are fragrant and penetrate deep in the soil.
leaves very greatly in size and shape and opposite in arrangement.
young leaves have whitish midrib.
the flowers are small yellow and purple in colour, borne in umbellate cymes.
fruits with with two follicles and split open when dry.


Special characteristics of Emidesmus indicus
Roots are scented.

Madhuca Indica | Mahua | Poonam | Moha


Scientific classification of  madhuca indica | mahua

Kingdom: plantae
moha
Division: magnoliophyta
Class: magnoliopsida
Order: ericales
Family: sapotaceae
Genus: madhuca
Species: m. Longifolia

Common name ;- mahua, mahuva, ippe, poonam, moha, mohoka, illupai:- ..etc.

Nature:-it is a tree.

Leaves:-leaves are 10 – 30 centemeter long. Leaves are thick and leathery most of leaves pointed at the tip.

Flowers:-flowers are small and fleshy. Flowers are dull or pale white in colour.

Fruits:-in size fruits arec 2 – 6 centemeter long, fleshy and greenish.

Medicinal uses of madhuca indica (mahua):-this trees bark,leaves,fruits, flowers and seeds everything is useful in the making of drugs.
Barks useful in bleeding gums and ulcers, and also useful in the diabetes.
Moha leaves mixed with butter and applied on the burns.
Flowers are useful in the cough.
This trees seeds are useful in making of soaps and good useful in skin diseases.

Santalum Album | Chandan | Sandalwood.

Santalum Album | Chandan | Sandalwood.

Kingdom: Plantae
Chandan
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Santalales
Family: Santalaceae
Genus: Santalum
Species: S. album

Common Names Of Santalum Album:-

Sukhand, Chandn, Shrigandha, Chandanam, Ganndham, Malyaja..Etc..

Nature:- Santalum Album is evergreen tree. mostly it is known as Sandalwood.

Leaves:-leaves are 5-8 cm long, opposite and shining pairs.

Flowers:- flowers are small, purplish and in small bunches.

Fruits:-flowers are black in colour and long with 6 mm diameter.

Medicinal Uses Of Santalum Album :- drug uses of this plant has very importance.
the oil which obtained by this is useful in dysuria  and also useful in tuberculosis of gall bladder.
oil which obtained by this plants seeds is useful in skin diseases.
like "chandan" seeds pumpkin seeds and wild flower seeds are also useful.
the oil is also useful in making of perfumes.
this tree is very important in india country , hence people gives very good tree service to this tree.

Hydnocarpus Kurzii | Chalmogra

Scientific classification of Hydnocarpus Kurzii  

Kingdom: Plantae
kurzii
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Achariaceae
Genus: Hydnocarpus
Species: H. kurzii

Common Names :-chalmogra, lamtani, maravetti, dalmugri…

Leaves:-Leaves are large about 20 cm long. Pointed at the tip.

Flowers:-flowers are small with yellow in colour.

Fruits:-fruits are brown in colour round in shape .fruits are with 7 cm diameter.

Medicinal Uses Of Hydnocarpus Kurzii (Chalmogra):- oil obtained from the fresh seeds of this
Tree has their medicinal uses. Which is useful in the treatment of leprosy.
Its bark is useful to gives tannins. Which is useful in the fever.
Seeds used as a manure.
the drug which obtained by this tree is also useful.




Tribulus terrestris | kanti | gokhru | palleru

Tribulus terrestris  | kanti | gokhru |  palleru


Kingdom: Plantae
chor
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Zygophyllales
Family: Zygophyllaceae
Genus: Tribulus
Species: T. terrestris

Common Names:-gokhru, neringil, palleru, neringil, laghu, ..etc.
.
Nature:-it is a herb. covered with a bit of hair.

Leaves:-leaves are opposite in pairs. Its length about 4-10 cm long, compound.

Flowers:-flowers are pale yellow in colour. diameter of flowers are mostly 1- 18 cm.

Fruits:- fruits mostly stick to the cloths.

In north india people called this fruit as a “chor”.
seeds many in five parts of the fruits

Medicinal Uses Of Tribulus Terrestris (Kanti):-this plants fruits are useful to making “drugs” .
The fruits are useful in sexual weakness and urinary problem.

This plants mostly known as chhoto gokhru.
The extract of fruits is useful in gout and diseases of kidney which promotes urination.
.

Haldu | Mahamk | Aspidum Macrophyllum uses and taxonomy

Adina cordifolia  | Haldu Tree | taxonomy

Adina cordifolia -The Fodder PlantScientific classification of Adina cordifolia Tree .

Kingdom: Plantae
Haldu
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Haldina
Species: H. cordifolia
Family.—Rubiaceae.

Common names :-Gujrati. Haladwan; Haldu; Hedde; Marathi.Haldu.
A large deciduous tree common throughout the State in deciduous forests.
Leaves are eaten by cattle.



Ailanthus Excelsa 
mahamk


Famiily .—Simarubeaceie.
Common names. :— Moto-aduso; Mahamk; Dodda-mara; Mahamk.
Handsome large free common in Gujarat.


Aspidum Macrophyllum

Stipes tufted, scaly below. Fronds 60 – 90 cm. long, pinnate, terminal pinnae 3 – lobed or segmented.

Aspidium Trifoliatum Bedd.

Stipes tufted, scaly. Fronds pinnate. 30 – 45 cm. long.

Urginea Indica | Jangali Piaz


Kingdom: Plantae

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Rosales

Family: Cannabaceae

Genus: Cannabis

Common Names:-ban piaz, kolikanda, rankanda , narivengayam, ..etc..

Nature:-it is a bulbous plant, have bulb 4-14 cm, dull white or pale, ovoid.

Leaves:-the lower basal leaves almost flat, very long in the length , narrow , pointed.

Flower:-flowers are light brown in colour and in slender long bunches.

Fruits:-fruits are 1.2-2 cm long ,narrowed on both ends: seeds are black.

Medicinal Uses Of Urginea Indica (Jangali Piaz):-the dry out coats of the bulbs
Are removed : the bulbs are sliced and dried : this constitutes the drug , Indian squill.
The use of Indian squill is recommended only in that case which need to be treated with
Digitalis but are sensitive to that drug. which is used in ailments of heart, in cough and bronchitis
.it also promote urination.


List of Important wild fodder-legumes | Food plants | citrus Plants

List of Important wild fodder-legumes |  Food plants  | citrus  Plants

Important Plants
1. Adulsa
2. Sadabahar Plant
3. Gulvel
4. Vekhand
5. Calotropis Gigantea
6. Helicteres Isora
7. Mulethi Plant
8. Adhatoda Zeylanica
9. Costus Speciosus
10. Gokhru Plant
11. Ambehalad
12. Sarpagandha
13. Catharanthus Roseus
14. Pudina Plant
15. Tylophora Indica
16. Sabja
17. Daruhaldi
18. Punarnava Plant
19. Madar Plant
20. Crataeva Nurvala
21. Madhuca Indica
22. Kalijiri
23. Rui Plant
24. Chitrak Plant
25. Chopchini
26. Kutaj
27. Korphad Plant
28. Khirni Plant
29. Badishep
30. Bel Plant
31. Azadirachta Indica (Neem)
32. Aavla
33. Ashok Medicinal Plant
34. Shirish Tree
35. Gulwel
36. Babhul
37. Shevari
38. Kanchan Plant
39. Sonchafa Flower
40. Ajvain
Citrus Group of fruits. | Names | common names
1.SANTRA
2.LADOO
3.KAWLA 
4.RESHMI NARING 
5.MOSAMBI 
6.Lush
7.Amla
8.Kirnelli
9.Haraparrevadi, 
10.Rai-amba.
Some most important wild fodder-legumes.
1.Centrasima pubescens
2.Heylandia latebrosa
3.Alysicarpus rugosus
4.Alysicarpus pubescens
5.Longifolius
6.Urochloa reptans
7.Urochloa helopus
8.Themeda triandra
9.Themeda tremula
List of Food plants | cereals plants.
1.Vigna catjang
2.Pisum arvense
3.Phaseolus radiatus
4.Phaseolus mungo
5.Phaseolus aconitifolius
6.Lens esculenta
7.Lathyrus sativus
8.Pisum arvense
9.Phaseolus radiatus
10.Phaseolus mungo
11.Phaseolus aconitifolius
12.Dolichos lablab
13.Dolichos biflorus
14.Cyamopsis tetragonaloba
15.Triticum species.
16.Setaria italica
17.Pennisetum spicetum
18.Iwspalum scrobiculatum
19.Panicum pilosum
20.Panicum meliare
21.Panicum millaceum
22.Eleusine coracana
23.Eciiinochloa stagnana
24.Avena sativa
25.Andropogon sorghum
26.Oryza Sativa